Pre-Spanish Era 5. The power of the church derived not simply from wealth and official status. The Spanish friars introduced Western painting in the Philippines to artisans who learned to copy on two-dimensional form from the religious icons that the friars brought from Spain,. 351 37 But the Muslims of Mindanao and Sulu, whom the Spanish called Moros, were never completely subdued by Spain. A country cannot be a colony for over three hundred years and not imbibe the culture of the colonizer. 353 0 obj<>stream To conclude its three-year archaeological excavation of Spanish-era stone house ruins in San Juan, Batangas, the University of the Philippines-Diliman Archaeological Studies Program (UP-ASP) conducted a rigorous archaeological excavation of the second of two Spanish-era stone house ruins located in Barangay Pinagbayanan in San Juan, Batangas. The Spanish city of Manila was founded in 1571, and by the end of the 16th century most of the coastal and lowland areas from Luzon to northern Mindanao were under Spanish control. 0000014607 00000 n Philippine photo history from the Spanish era until World War II. Even though 12,000 Chinese were expelled in 1596, settlers continued to arrive from the mainland. Such was the state of culture of the Filipinos when Ferdinand Magellan arrived in the Philippines at the head of a Spanish expedition searching for the Spice Islands in 1521. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. 0000008410 00000 n The natives dwelt on houses made of bamboo and palm leaves, and were properly attired at all times. Essay on Filipinos Before the Spanish Era Long before the Spaniards came, the Philippines was already inhabited by natives. Spanish historians, writing about the early Filipinos, affirmed that there was hardly a man or woman who could not read and write. 0000001870 00000 n And among the natives of the Island were the Negritos. 0000007418 00000 n Spanish colonial motives were not, however, strictly commercial. Schooling wa… 0000003368 00000 n 0000002963 00000 n ��2]dz���ԓ��@x����%҇LA&0�0�ahd`g��! 0000001425 00000 n During the Spanish colonization in the Philippines , the government was composed of two branches, the executive and the judicial. Old Spanish-speaking Manila - Duration: 3:03. In addition to Luzon, select cities such as Bacolod , Cebu , Iloilo or Zamboanga which are home to historical military fortifications or commercial ports during the Spanish era also holds sizable mestizo communities. 0000014379 00000 n Augmenting their political power, religious orders, Roman Catholic hospitals and schools, and bishops acquired great wealth, mostly in land. But abusive treatment of the local tribute payers and neglect of religious instruction by encomenderos (collectors of the tribute), as well as frequent withholding of revenues from the crown, caused the Spanish to abandon the system by the end of the 17th century. They left their mark probably more so than any other foreign nation to which the Philippines was subjected.Spain was one of the most powerful nations in t… The Spanish at first viewed the Philippines as a stepping-stone to the riches of the East Indies (Spice Islands), but, even after the Portuguese and Dutch had foreclosed that possibility, the Spanish still maintained their presence in the archipelago. Nevertheless, the datu’s once hereditary position became subject to Spanish appointment. There was oral and written literature. The Philippines was controlled by the Spaniards and the Catholic Church. He claimed land for the king of Spain but was killed by a local chief. During the pre-colonial times, Filipinos lived in bahay kubos (nipa huts), one of 0000079831 00000 n Friars marched with soldiers and soon accomplished the nominal conversion to Roman Catholicism of all the local people under Spanish administration. Spanish rule for the first 100 years was exercised in most areas through a type of tax farming imported from the Americas and known as the encomienda. There was no legislative branch on that time since the laws of the islands were coming from Spain . 0000002802 00000 n 0000003608 00000 n Written by Miguel Lucio y Bustamante and published by La Voz de Espana. But the dispersed demographic patterns of the old barangays largely persisted. 0 Achievements: 1. There were anti-Chinese riots in 1603, 1639, 1662, 1686, 1762 and 1819. As such, the crown was at liberty to parcel out huge tracts of Philippine lands as rewards to loyal civilian and military as rewards. Central government in Manila retained a medieval cast until the 19th century, and the governor-general was so powerful that he was often likened to an independent monarch. Agricultural technology changed very slowly until the late 18th century, as shifting cultivation gradually gave way to more intensive sedentary farming, partly under the guidance of the friars. Twilight of Spanish Rule The Philippine Representation in the Spanish Cortes Ventura de los Reyes a creole born in Vigan. 0000002476 00000 n The Philippines, ruled first from Mexico City and later from Madrid, was a Spanish territoryfor 333 years (1565–1898). The governor-general was civil head of the church in the islands, but the archbishop vied with him for political supremacy. One of the major initial policies of the governorship of Legazpi was to recognize all lands in the Philippines as part of public domain regardless of local customs. For the first centuries of Spanish colonization, painting was limited to religious icons. Magellan landed on the island of Cebu, claiming the lands for Spain and naming them Islas de San Lazaro. Philippine History: Spanish Era 1. 0000001057 00000 n The only laws created in the Philippines are those who were ordered by the Governor General. In the late 17th and 18th centuries the archbishop, who also had the legal status of lieutenant governor, frequently won. 0000007713 00000 n @����+�4�든|; ~������|�l�~g�:�r��#����x7�0 m}K� %PDF-1.4 %���� 351 0 obj<> endobj The priests and friars had a command of local languages rare among the lay Spanish, and in the provinces they outnumbered civil officials. 0000002638 00000 n During the Spanish occupation the woman being subordinate was instilled, men rising as the dominant gender, establishing a patriarchal society that has prevailed and surpassed generations, and is now the prevalent type of society that we follow. Manila dominated the islands not only as the political capital. Royal grants and devises formed the core of their holdings, but many arbitrary extensions were made beyond the boundaries of the original grants. Such is the case with the Philippines which was a Spanish colony from 1521 to 1898 when the colonial rule ended with a Filipino revolution cut short when Spain ceded the country to the Americans with the signing of the Treaty of Paris for twenty million dollars. The Chinese, despite being the victims of periodic massacres at the hands of suspicious Spanish, persisted and soon established a dominance of commerce that survived through the centuries. Spanish rule ended in 1898 with Spain's defeat in the Spanish–American War. 23:37. Spanish rule was punctuated by periodic revolts, many of them involving Chinese who lived outside the walls of Manila in a place called the Parian. 0000010883 00000 n 0000013760 00000 n During his time, many changes happened to the Filipinos. The downfall of Marcos and return of democratic government. PHILIPPINE HISTORY SPANISH ERA 2. These heirs of pre-Spanish nobility were known as the principalia and played an important role in the friar-dominated local government. A tour of the heritage houses gives a glimpse of the way of life of the Filipinos during the Spanish era, from 1521 to 1898, when the Philippines was under the Spanish rule. During the Spanish colonial period in the Philippines (1521-1898), the culture of the archipelago experienced a major transformation from a variety of native Asian and Islamic cultures and traditions, including animist religious practices, to a unique hybrid of Southeast Asian and Western culture, particularly Spanish, including the Spanish language and the Catholic faith. In 1574, the governor of Manila was assassinated by Chinese mutineers on his galley. 1. and Spanish era buildings in the Philippines which, even if not built by us Filipinos, are part of our cultural heritage, thus making them a part of our identity. Spanish Era in the Philippines - Duration: ... Spanish Period in the Philippines - Duration: 23:37. Spanish Period (1521-1898) 6. 0000001603 00000 n He arrived in March 1521 during his circumnavigation of the globe. Source: philippineamericanwar.webs.com. The Philippines then became a territory of the United States. The governor-general, himself appointed by the king, began to appoint his own civil and military governors to rule directly. Probably one of the most widely-used images to depict the Spanish excesses in the Philippines is that of the lecherous, self-righteous friar. The priests tried to move all the people into pueblos, or villages, surrounding the great stone churches. 0000005314 00000 n He signed the Spanish Constitution of 1812 2. 0000014133 00000 n Spanish was the language of government, education and trade throughout the three centuries (333 years) of the Philippines being part of the Spanish Empire and continued to serve as a lingua franca until the first half of the 20th century. %%EOF Philippine Literature in the Spanish Colonial Period with Reflection February 23, 2016 March 6, 2016 The existing literature of the Philippine ethnic groups at the time of conquest and conversion into Christianity was mainly oral, consisting of epics, legends, songs, riddles, and proverbs. The primary problem of the Philippines during Spanish era is the recognition of the Spanish crown itself in the legitimacy of settlement of indios in the Philippines. PHILIPPINE MEDIA AND LITERATURE DURING THE PRE-SPANISH ERA The following are accounts of existence and developments of Philippine literature from the Pre-Spanish Colonization: The Start of Recorded History The end of Philippine prehistory is April 21 900 AD, the date inscribed in the oldest Philippine document found so far, the Laguna Copperplate Inscription. Philippines - Philippines - The Spanish period: Spanish colonial motives were not, however, strictly commercial. In 1574, a Chinese pirate named Lin Tao Kien unsuccessfully attacked Manila. He was responsible for establishing peace with various indigenous tribes. Thus, they were an invaluable source of information to the colonial government. The time that the Philippines was under Spanish rule makes up a major part of their history. In the first decades of missionary work, local religions were vigorously suppressed; old practices were not tolerated. Economic and political institutions were also altered under Spanish impact but perhaps less thoroughly than in the religious realm. Spanish era periodicals record that as much as one-third of the inhabitants of the island of Luzon possess varying degrees of Spanish admixture. Manila was also the ecclesiastical capital of the Philippines. 0000002247 00000 n <<24e89f699764344ea18de6423b0e773c>]>> 0000009211 00000 n He dominated the Audiencia, or high court, was captain-general of the armed forces, and enjoyed the privilege of engaging in commerce for private profit. The piece x�bbz�����8�f�K� � Thus, even in the area of religion, pre-Spanish Filipino culture was not entirely destroyed. The Philippine Economy During the Spanish Colonial Period. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. It was first introduced to the Philippines in 1565, when the conquistador Miguel López de Legazpi founded the first Spanish settlement on the island of Cebú. Spanish friars of the Dominican Order, ca 1875-1880. If you have a personal collection of historical people or places that you would like to share, they are most welcome in this site. The Portuguese navigator and explorer Ferdinand Magellan headed the first Spanish foray to the Philippines when he made landfall on Cebu in March 1521; a short time later he met an untimely death on the nearby island of Mactan. The datus and other representatives of the old noble class took advantage of the introduction of the Western concept of absolute ownership of land to claim as their own fields cultivated by their various retainers, even though traditional land rights had been limited to usufruct. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_Philippines_(1521–1898) On the one hand, Spanish clergy were very destructive of local religious practices. 0000002313 00000 n 0000010752 00000 n startxref The socioeconomic consequences of the Spanish policies that accompanied this shift reinforced class differences. 0000004511 00000 n Literature, religion, lifestyles, societal classes and the like was taken into… The Spanish Era in the Philippines When European traders, in search for a new route to the Spice Islands, stumbled into the Philippine archipelago in 1521, they found the people living in a comparatively high state of civilization. U.S forces suppressed a Philippine Revolution led by Emilio Aguinaldo. This is a list of educational institutions in the Philippines arranged according to the dates of their foundation.It comprises the list of the oldest schools in the Philippines sorted in various categories, and gives an overview of the development of education and higher learning in the Philippines. 0000013895 00000 n The exchange of Chinese silks for Mexican silver not only kept in Manila those Spanish who were seeking quick profit, but it also attracted a large Chinese community. endstream endobj 352 0 obj<>>>/LastModified(D:20110625185625)/MarkInfo<>>> endobj 354 0 obj<>/Font<>/XObject<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageC]/ExtGState<>>>/StructParents 0>> endobj 355 0 obj[356 0 R 357 0 R 358 0 R 359 0 R 360 0 R 361 0 R] endobj 356 0 obj<>/Subtype/Link/A 382 0 R/StructParent 1>> endobj 357 0 obj<>/Subtype/Link/A 381 0 R/StructParent 2>> endobj 358 0 obj<>/Subtype/Link/A 380 0 R/StructParent 3>> endobj 359 0 obj<>/Subtype/Link/A 379 0 R/StructParent 4>> endobj 360 0 obj<>/Subtype/Link/A 378 0 R/StructParent 5>> endobj 361 0 obj<>/Subtype/Link/A 376 0 R/StructParent 6>> endobj 362 0 obj<> endobj 363 0 obj<> endobj 364 0 obj<> endobj 365 0 obj<> endobj 366 0 obj<>stream Spanish Colonization (1521 - 1898) 3. Navigate parenthood with the help of the Raising Curious Learners podcast. Spain had control of the Philippines for more than 300 years, so it’s no surprise that there are many Filipino customs, traditions, and cultural norms that can be traced back to the Spanish. 26. The galleon trade with Acapulco, Mex., assured Manila’s commercial primacy as well. 0000014014 00000 n The Friars Did Nothing But Oppress The People. The cultural goal of the Spanish clergy was nothing less than the full Christianization and Hispanization of the Filipino. The Spanish colonization in the Philippines lead to us to make some questions in our mind on how does the Filipino survived? 0000006717 00000 n x�b```a``������� �� �[email protected]���@�Ev�]�Ǒ�.li`@�:�i�L��)y+u^��ҩӝ5+���I've�} +q��� ���```b% �Q�a,P�G�- ��`m*��r�u �@����p�1��&��N�UL3�� H��VMoA�ﯘc+������U"�b���t��P ��__/�ip �h�����ٳ��z�X��y�������zr��]^^�\��W3�2E��k�'`��!�� 3�w)Cq�z���lՌ&+t7���f|+Fw�Q�ߨ��n�^�_�ͨmQ��. trailer 0000013625 00000 n 0000009968 00000 n xref Don't waste time. After King Philip II (for whom the islands are named) had dispatched three further expeditions that ended in disaster, he sent out Miguel López de Legazpi, who established the first permanent Spanish settlement, in Cebu, in 1565. Ferdinand Magellan arrived in the Philippines in 1521. Ferdinand Magellan was the first European recorded to have landed in the Philippines. Even though they experienced the inhumanity of the Spaniards. Followed the Spanish philosophy that the "indios" did not deserve to be educated. endstream endobj 387 0 obj<>/W[1 1 1]/Type/XRef/Index[234 117]>>stream 0000003127 00000 n The legacy of Spanish conquest and colonial rule in the Philippines, as is true of all colonial attempts to 'master' or manage indigenous populations, is mixed. 0000003291 00000 n But as the Christian laity grew in number and the zeal of the clergy waned, it became increasingly difficult to prevent the preservation of ancient beliefs and customs under Roman Catholic garb. The one in 1603 was particularly nast… 0000005999 00000 n The site contains photos of a compilation of pictures that can be found all over the net and some donated personal collections. Describes the peaceful provincial life and argued that agitation in the cities could never do a native any good. The Spanish at first viewed the Philippines as a stepping-stone to the riches of the East Indies (Spice Islands), but, even after the Portuguese and Dutch had foreclosed that possibility, the Spanish still maintained their presence in the archipelago. Stay tuned for part 2 as that will discuss events from the Dagohoy revolt to the events around the 1870's. 0000000016 00000 n 0000013553 00000 n Amazing Kaspil2 34,079 views. 0000008374 00000 n The United States established the Insular Government to rule the Philippines. SUMMARY: The Spanish Period (1565-1898) was believed to have started during the time of Miguel Lopez de Legazpi, the first Governor-General in the Philippines. 0000004002 00000 n Philippine History: Fashion from the Spanish Era Spanish Influence on Philippine Fashion When we speak about fashion or clothing during the Spanish Colonization of the Philippines, we would think baro’t saya, Maria Clara dress, barong tagalog and camisa de chino. 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