Benefits of a network virtualization overlay include the following: ●      Optimized device functions: Overlay networks allow the separation (and specialization) of device functions based on where a device is being used in the network. The investment giant is one of the biggest advocates outside Silicon Valley for open source hardware, and the new building itself is a modular, just-in-time construction design. For feature support and for more information about Cisco FabricPath technology, please refer to the configuration guides, release notes, and reference documents listed at the end of this document. The FabricPath spine-and-leaf network uses Layer 2 FabricPath MAC-in-MAC frame encapsulation, and it uses FabricPath IS-IS for the control-plane in the underlay network. It provides real-time health summaries, alarms, visibility information, etc. To learn end-host reachability information, FabricPath switches rely on initial data-plane traffic flooding. In 2013, UI requested that TIA stop using the Tier system to describe reliability levels, and TIA switched to using the word “Rated” in lieu of “Tiers,” defined as Rated 1-4. Cisco Data Center Network Manager (DCNM) is a management system for the Cisco® Unified Fabric. It provides a simple, flexible, and stable network, with good scalability and fast convergence characteristics, and it can use multiple parallel paths at Layer 2. This document reviews several spine-and-leaf architecture designs that Cisco has offered in the recent past as well as current designs and those the Cisco expects to offer in the near future to address fabric requirements in the modern virtualized data center: ●      Cisco® FabricPath spine-and-leaf network, ●      Cisco VXLAN flood-and-learn spine-and-leaf network, ●      Cisco VXLAN Multiprotocol Border Gateway Protocol (MP-BGP) Ethernet Virtual Private Network (EVPN) spine-and-leaf network, ●      Cisco Massively Scalable Data Center (MSDC) Layer 3 spine-and-leaf network. Spanning Tree Protocol provides several benefits: it is simple, and it is a plug-and-play technology requiring little configuration. ), (Note: The spine switch only needs to run BGP-EVPN control plane and IP routing. Join millions of people using Oodle to find unique job listings, employment offers, part time jobs, and employment news. Broadcast and unknown unicast traffic in FabricPath is flooded to all FabricPath edge ports in the VLAN or broadcast domain. The border leaf switch learns external routes and advertises them to the EVPN domain as EVPN routes so that other VTEP leaf nodes can also learn about the external routes for sending outbound traffic. The entire purpose of designing a data center revolves around maximum utilization of IT resources for the sake of boosted efficiency, improved sales, and operational costs and fewer environmental effects. Interactions or communication between the data accessors is only through the data stor… It provides control-plane and data-plane separation and a unified control plane for both Layer 2 and Layer 3 forwarding in a VXLAN overlay network. In MP-BGP EVPN, multiple tenants can co-exist and share a common IP transport network while having their own separate VPNs in the VXLAN overlay network (Figure 19). The multicast distribution tree for this group is built through the transport network based on the locations of participating VTEPs. A new data center design called the Clos network–based spine-and-leaf architecture was developed to overcome these limitations. Overlay tenant Layer 3 multicast traffic is supported by two ways: (1) Layer 3 PIM-based multicast routing on an external router for Cisco Nexus 7000 Series Switches including the Cisco Nexus 7700 platform switches and Cisco Nexus 9000 Series Switches. The leaf layer consists of access switches that connect to devices such as servers. The architect must demonstrate the capacity to develop a robust server and storage architecture. The leaf Layer is responsible for advertising server subnets in the network fabric. It doesn’t learn the overlay host MAC address. If oversubscription of a link occurs (that is, if more traffic is generated than can be aggregated on the active link at one time), the process for expanding capacity is straightforward. Spine devices are responsible for learning infrastructure routes and end-host subnet routes. As the number of hosts in a broadcast domain increases, the negative effects of flooding packets become more pronounced. With vPC technology, Spanning Tree Protocol is still used as a fail-safe mechanism. Please note that TRM is only supported on newer generation of Nexus 9000 switches such as Cloud Scale ASIC–based switches. If one of the top tier switches were to fail, it would only slightly degrade performance throughout the data center. Software management tools such as DCIM (Data Center Infrastructure Management), CMMS (Computerized Maintenance Management System), EPMS (Electrical Power Monitoring System), and DMS (Document Management System) for operations and maintenance can provide a “single pane of glass” to view all required procedures, infrastructure assets, maintenance activities, and operational issues. The spine switch learns external routes and advertises them to the EVPN domain as EVPN routes so that other VTEP leaf nodes can also learn about the external routes for sending outbound traffic. Every leaf switch connects to every spine switch in the fabric. The VXLAN VTEP uses a list of IP addresses of other VTEPS in the network to send broadcast and unknown unicast traffic. Gensler, Corgan, and HDR top Building Design+Construction’s annual ranking of the nation’s largest data center sector architecture and A/E firms, as reported in the 2016 Giants 300 Report. Hosts attached to remote VTEPs are learned remotely through the MP-BGP control plane. at the time of this writing. It complies with IETF VXLAN standards RFC 7348 and RFC8365 (previously draft-ietf-bess-evpn-overlay). Internal and external routing on the spine layer. The multi-tier approach includes web, application, and database tiers of servers. ), ●      Storage Area Network (SAN) controller mode: manages Cisco MDS Series switches for storage network deployment with graphical control for all SAN administration functions. DCP_2047.JPG 1/6 It doesn’t learn host MAC addresses. Data centers often have multiple fiber connections to the internet provided by multiple … With VRF-lite, the number of VLANs supported across the FabricPath network is 4096. Spine switches are performing intra-VLAN FabricPath frame switching. The routing protocol can be regular eBGP or any Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) of choice. Registered in England and Wales. Features exist, such as the FabricPath Multitopology feature, to help limit traffic flooding in a subsection of the FabricPath network. ), ●      Border spine switch for external routing, (Note: The spine switch needs to support VXLAN routing on hardware. That’s the goal of Intel Rack Scale Design (Intel RSD), a blueprint for unleashing industry innovation around a common CDI-based data center architecture. To learn end-host reachability information, FabricPath switches rely on initial data-plane traffic flooding. It extends Layer 2 segments over a Layer 3 infrastructure to build Layer 2 overlay logical networks. The SVIs on the border leaf switches perform inter-VLAN routing for east-west internal traffic and exchange routing adjacency with Layer 3 routed uplinks to route north-south external traffic. Cisco DCNM can be installed in four modes: ●      Classic LAN mode: manages Cisco Nexus Data Center infrastructure deployed in legacy designs, such as vPC design, FabricPath design, etc. In MP-BGP EVPN, any VTEP in a VNI can be the distributed anycast gateway for end hosts in its IP subnet by supporting the same virtual gateway IP address and the virtual gateway MAC address (shown in Figure 16). VN-segments are used to provide isolation at Layer 2 for each tenant. But routed traffic needs to traverse two hops: leaf to spine and then to the default gateway on the border leaf to be routed. Encapsulation format and standards compliance. Cisco VXLAN MP-BGP EVPN spine-and-leaf architecture is one of the latest innovations from Cisco. As an extension to MP-BGP, MP-BGP EVPN inherits the support for multitenancy with VPN using the VRF construct. The VXLAN MP-BGP EVPN spine-and-leaf architecture uses MP-BGP EVPN for the control plane for the VXLAN overlay network. ●      It provides mechanisms for building active-active multihoming at Layer 2. They must also play an active role in manageability and operations of the data center. Table 4 summarizes the characteristics of a Layer 3 MSDC spine-and-leaf network. In 2010, Cisco introduced virtual-port-channel (vPC) technology to overcome the limitations of Spanning Tree Protocol. Cisco began supporting VXLAN flood-and-learn spine-and-leaf technology in about 2014 on multiple Cisco Nexus switches such as the Cisco Nexus 5600 platform and Cisco Nexus 7000 and 9000 Series. Table 2 summarizes the characteristics of a VXLAN flood-and-learn spine-and-leaf network. It has modules on all the major sub-systems of a mission critical facility and their interdependencies, including power, cooling, compute and network. The Cisco FabricPath spine-and-leaf network is proprietary to Cisco. The Layer 3 routing function is laid on top of the Layer 2 network. However, the spine switch only needs to run the BGP-EVPN control plane and IP routing; it doesn’t need to support the VXLAN VTEP function. To learn end-host reachability information, FabricPath switches rely on initial data-plane traffic flooding. For Layer 2 multicast traffic, traffic entering the FabricPath switch is hashed to a multidestination tree to be forwarded. The data center is a dedicated space were your firm houses its most important information and relies on it being safe and accessible. Cisco VXLAN flood-and-learn spine-and-leaf network. TIA uses tables within the standard to easily identify the ratings for telecommunications, architectural, electrical, and mechanical systems. The traditional data center uses a three-tier architecture, with servers segmented into pods based on location, as shown in Figure 1. These are the VN-segment core ports. FabricPath enables new capabilities and design options that allow network operators to create Ethernet fabrics that increase bandwidth availability, provide design flexibility, and simplify and reduce the costs of network and application deployment and operation. Codes must be followed when designing, building, and operating your data center, but “code” is the minimum performance requirement to ensure life safety and energy efficiency in most cases. For example, fabrics need to support scaling of forwarding tables, scaling of network segments, Layer 2 segment extension, virtual device mobility, forwarding path optimization, and virtualized networks for multitenant support on shared physical infrastructure. In this two-tier Clos architecture, every lower-tier switch (leaf layer) is connected to each of the top-tier switches (spine layer) in a full-mesh topology. With IP multicast enabled in the underlay network, each VXLAN segment, or VNID, is mapped to an IP multicast group in the transport IP network. Should it have the minimum required by code? But the FabricPath network is flood-and-learn-based Layer 2 technology. Common Layer 3 designs use centralized routing: that is, the Layer 3 routing function is centralized on specific switches (spine switches or border leaf switches). The Layer 3 routing function is laid on top of the Layer 2 network. The Layer 3 internal routed traffic is routed directly by a distributed anycast gateway on each ToR switch in a scale-out fashion. The VXLAN flood-and-learn spine-and-leaf network doesn’t have a control plane for the overlay network. This traffic needs to be handled efficiently, with low and predictable latency. The external routing function is centralized on specific switches. An additional spine switch can be added, and uplinks can be extended to every leaf switch, resulting in the addition of interlayer bandwidth and reduction of the oversubscription. Border leaf switches can inject default routes to attract traffic intended for external destinations. Ratings/Reliability is defined by Class 0 to 4 and certified by BICSI-trained and certified professionals. A Layer 3 function is laid on top of the Layer 2 network. Table 1 summarizes the characteristics of a FabricPath spine-and-leaf network. The VXLAN MP-BGP EVPN spine-and-leaf architecture uses Layer 3 IP for the underlay network. Traditional three-tier data center design The architecture consists of core routers, aggregation routers (sometimes called distribution routers), and access switches. With the anycast gateway function in EVPN, end hosts in a VNI always can use their local VTEPs for this VNI as their default gateway to send traffic out of their IP subnet. The FabricPath IS-IS control plane builds reachability information about how to reach other FabricPath switches. If deviations are necessary because of site limitations, financial limitations, or availability limitations, they should be documented and accepted by all stakeholders of the facility. The impact of broadcast and unknown unicast traffic flooding needs to be carefully considered in the FabricPath network design. It also addresses how these resources/devices will be interconnected and how physical and logical security workflows are arranged. The Layer 3 function is laid on top of the Layer 2 network. ●      LAN Fabric mode: provides Fabric Builder for automated VXLAN EVPN fabric underlay deployment, overlay deployment, end-to-end flow trace, alarm and troubleshooting, configuration compliance and device lifecycle management, etc. Data Centered Architecture serves as a blueprint for designing and deploying a data center facility. Network overlays are virtual networks of interconnected nodes that share an underlying physical network, allowing deployment of applications that require specific network topologies without the need to modify the underlying network (Figure 5). It provides rich-insights telemetry information and other advanced analytics information, etc. The Layer 2 overlay network is created on top of the Layer 3 IP underlay network by using the VTEP tunneling mechanism to transport Layer 2 packets. Our client-first culture and multi-disciplinary architecture and engineering experts recognize the power of design in transforming the human experience. For Layer 3 IP multicast traffic, traffic needs to be forwarded by Layer 3 multicast using Protocol-Independent Multicast (PIM). In most cases, the spine switch is not used to directly connect to the outside world or to other MSDC networks, but it will forward such traffic to specialized leaf switches acting as border leaf switches. It is part of the underlay Layer 3 IP network and transports the VXLAN encapsulated packets. Application and Virtualization Infrastructure Are Directly Linked to Data Center Design. Not all facilities supporting your specific industry will meet your defined mission, so your facility may not look or operate like another, even in the same industry. If no oversubscription occurs between the lower-tier switches and their uplinks, then a nonblocking architecture can be achieved. ●      Media controller mode: manages Cisco IP Fabric network for Media solution and helps transition from an SDI router to an IP-based infrastructure. Data center design with extended Layer 3 domain. The Azure Architecture Center provides best practices for running your workloads on Azure. The design encourages the overlap of these functions and creates a public route through the building. Table 4. Internal and external routing at the border spine. The origins of the Uptime Institute as a data center users group established it as the first group to measure and compare a data center’s reliability. We are continuously innovating the design and systems of our data centers to protect them from man-made and natural risks. A legacy mindset in data center architecture revolves around the notion of “design now, deploy later.” The approach to creating a versatile, digital-ready data center must involve the deployment of infrastructure during the design session. The spine layer is the backbone of the network and is responsible for interconnecting all leaf switches. Host mobility and multitenancy is not supported. Common Layer 3 designs use centralized routing: that is, the Layer 3 routing function is centralized on specific switches (spine switches or border leaf switches). Each host is associated with a host subnet and talks with other hosts through Layer 3 routing. It provides control-plane and data-plane separation and a unified control plane for both Layer 2 and Layer 3 forwarding in a VXLAN overlay network. Also, with SVIs enabled on the spine switch, the spine switch disables conversational learning and learns the MAC address in the corresponding subnet. As shown in the design for internal and external routing on the border leaf in Figure 13, the leaf ToR VTEP switch is a Layer 2 VXLAN gateway to transport the Layer 2 segment over the underlay Layer 3 IP network. After MAC-to-VTEP mapping is complete, the VTEPs forward VXLAN traffic in a unicast stream. This scoping allows potential overlap in MAC and IP addresses between tenants. The FabricPath network is a Layer 2 network, and Layer 3 SVIs are laid on top of the Layer 2 FabricPath switch. His experience also includes providing analysis of critical application support facilities. The result is increased stability and scalability, fast convergence, and the capability to use multiple parallel paths typical in a Layer 3 routed environment. A central datastructure or data store or data repository, which is responsible for providing permanent data storage. Here’s a sample from the 2005 standard (click the image to enlarge): TIA has a certification system in place with dedicated vendors that can be retained to provide facility certification. ), Supports both Layer 2 multitenancy and Layer 3 multitenancy, RFC 7348 and RFC8365 (previously draft-ietf-bess-evpn-overlay). ), Note: Ingress replication is supported only on Cisco Nexus 9000 Series Switches. Cisco VXLAN MP-BGP EVPN spine-and-leaf network multitenancy, Cisco VXLAN MP BGP-EVPN spine-and-leaf network summary. An international series of data center standards in continuous development is the EN 50600 series. As the number of hosts in a broadcast domain increases, the negative effects of flooding packets become more pronounced. For more information about Cisco DCNM, see https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/products/cloud-systems-management/prime-data-center-network-manager/index.html. It uses FabricPath MAC-in-MAC frame encapsulation. The VXLAN MP-BGP EVPN spine-and-leaf architecture uses MP-BGP EVPN for the control plane. However, it is still a flood-and-learn-based Layer 2 technology. With Layer 2 segments extended across all the pods, the data center administrator can create a central, more flexible resource pool that can be reallocated based on needs. In the VXLAN flood-and-learn mode defined in RFC 7348, end-host information learning and VTEP discovery are both data-plane based, with no control protocol to distribute end-host reachability information among the VTEPs. Modern Data Center Design and Architecture. It represents the current state. VLAN has local significance on the leaf VTEP switch, and the VNI has global significance across the VXLAN network. Designing the modern data center begins with the careful placement of “good bones.”. The VXLAN flood-and-learn spine-and-leaf network complies with the IETF VXLAN standards (RFC 7348). These IP addresses are exchanged between VTEPs through the BGP EVPN control plane or static configuration. Web page addresses and e-mail addresses turn into links automatically. Layer 3 multitenancy example using VRF-lite, Cisco VXLAN flood-and-learn spine-and-leaf network summary. A data center floor plan includes the layout of the boundaries of the room (or rooms) and the layout of IT equipment within the room. The multi-tier data center model is dominated by HTTP-based applications in a multi-tier approach. For feature support and more information about Cisco VXLAN flood-and-learn technology, please refer to the configuration guides, release notes, and reference documents listed at the end of this document. Customer edge links (access and trunk) carry traditional VLAN tagged and untagged frames. The original Layer 2 frame is encapsulated with a VXLAN header and then placed in a UDP-IP packet and transported across an IP network. Although the concept of a network overlay is not new, interest in network overlays has increased in the past few years because of their potential to address some of these requirements. The VXLAN MP-BGP EVPN spine-and-leaf network needs to provide Layer 3 internal VXLAN routing as well as maintain connectivity with the networks that are external to the VXLAN fabric, including the campus network, WAN, and Internet. This course encompasses the basic principles of data center design, tracking its history from the early days of the mainframe to the modern enterprise data center in its many forms and the future. The FabricPath spine-and-leaf network also supports Layer 3 multitenancy using Virtual Routing and Forwarding lite (VRF-lite), as shown in Figure 9. (This mode is not relevant to this white paper.). Table 3. Each VTEP device is independently configured with this multicast group and participates in PIM routing. Informa PLC's registered office is 5 Howick Place, London SW1P 1WG. Mr. Shapiro has extensive experience in the design and management of corporate and mission critical facilities projects with over 4 million square feet of raised floor experience, over 175 MW of UPS experience and over 350 MW of generator experience. The standard breaks down as follows: Government regulations for data centers will depend on the nature of the business and can include HIPPA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act), SOX (Sarbanes Oxley) 2002, SAS 70 Type I or II, GLBA (Gramm-Leach Bliley Act), as well as new regulations that may be implemented depending on the nature of your business and the present security situation. Massively scalable data centers (MSDCs) are large data centers, with thousands of physical servers (sometimes hundreds of thousands), that have been designed to scale in size and computing capacity with little impact on the existing infrastructure. About the author: Steven Shapiro has been in the mission critical industry since 1988 and has a diverse background in the study, reporting, design, commissioning, development and management of reliable electrical distribution, emergency power, lighting, and fire protection systems for high tech environments.

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